You’ve heard calories are important.
You’ve been told for years that weight loss is about calories in versus calories out.
But you’re not happy with that explanation.
You’ve heard other people say that calories don’t count — that thermodynamics don’t apply to humans. You’ve heard that weight loss is endlessly complex and that calories are a “scam.”
Both sides say their ideas are supported by scientific evidence and you’re not sure which to believe.
To see which side is right, let’s look at how to set up an experiment to test the idea that calories count when it comes to weight loss. Then we’ll look at the studies that meet these guidelines, the ones that don’t, and what they both show.
How to Conduct a Weight Loss Study
We want to know if eating fewer calories causes weight loss.
Good experimentation is mostly about controlling for confounding variables. In our case, we need to control things that might influence calorie intake and weight loss.
We need some subjects. Since we don’t care about helping rats or mice lose fat — we need humans.
We recruit some slightly overweight or obese people to make the results generalizable to your average person who’s trying to lose weight.
We make sure all of our participants are as similar as possible in terms of weight, health, age, gender, dieting history, etc. This is to make sure these factors don’t distort our results.
After we’ve got our subjects, we begin the experiment.
We need to measure how many calories these people are eating to establish a baseline. We measure their energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry — where the subject’s breath is analyzed for different gases to indicate how many calories they’re burning. This gives us an excellent estimate of their energy expenditure.(1,2)
To make sure our estimates are correct and adjust their food intake to match their activity levels, we feed them a specific amount of calories for a week or two and monitor their weight. We adjust their calorie intake as needed so they’re eating the same amount they’re burning until they maintain their weight. This is referred to as an “eucaloric diet,” or maintenance.
We prepare all of our subjects’ meals ahead of time. We weigh every gram of food with a digital scale and we watch them during meals to make sure they eat every scrap of food. We also feed all of our subjects the same foods.
We give our subjects instructions to maintain about the same level of activity throughout the study.
Once we find how many calories each of our subjects needs to maintain their weight, we can take our experiment in several directions.
1. To test if eating less causes weight loss…
We would randomly assign half of our subject to a group that eats fewer calories every day. We would assign the other half of our subjects to a group that keeps eating their normal amount of food. If the group that eats less loses weight, then it’s likely that calories count.
2. To test if different macronutrients affect weight loss…
We would split the subjects into two or more groups, feed them different macronutrient ratios, and put them on the same caloric intake. If one group loses more weight than another, it’s possible that whatever they were eating accelerated (or hindered) their weight loss.
3. To test if different people lose more or less weight on different diets…
In random order, we would make all of the subjects eat several different diets. We would include a “wash-out” period in between each diet to get a new baseline for each subject. If the subjects consistently lost more weight eating a certain balance of protein, carbs, and fat, it’s possible that a specific macronutrient ratio accelerates weight loss.
This “cross-over” type experiment is also good if you have a small number of subjects (which many weight loss studies do).
4. To test if eating more calories causes weight gain…
We would make one group eat above their calorie needs, and the other group eat at maintenance. If the former group gained weight, it’s likely that calories count.
These are the main kinds of controlled weight loss experiments you usually see, but there are endless possible variations. We could (and eventually should) also include studies with exercise.
The key is to make sure our subjects do what we tell them.
We want to know for a fact that these people are eating *exactly* as many calories as we tell them to.
We have to keep them locked in the hospital where we can monitor all of their activity and food intake (no cheating).
We need to keep weighing all of their food and watching them at every meal.
We keep them on these diets for several weeks or months, and measure their weight. If we’re really trying to do a great job, we’d also measure their body composition, energy expenditure, and maybe a few other variables as well.
Like any good study, we’re sure to blind the researchers (us and our colleagues) and the subjects as to who is getting which treatment.
We would need to repeat this study on other people of different weights, genders, ages, and ethnic groups. We would test people with different diseases and different dieting histories (e.g. always been overweight, gained weight recently, etc.). We would also conduct studies that involved exercise and see how it interacts with the diet.
Then we would share our results and wait for other independent researchers across the globe to repeat them — using the same study design.
If other scientists found similar results to our studies, on similar subjects, using the same or similar conditions, we could assume with a reasonable level of certainty that our findings were correct. Then we’d throw a crazy party and blow a bunch of funding money (kidding).
If our findings were repeated consistently for years — even decades — and we were able to logically explain any odd results, we could call our theory a fact (an idea with the highest level of certainty).
Weight loss researchers have done exactly this (except for the parties) for over a century. Let’s see what they’ve found.
When People Create a Caloric Deficit — They Always Lose Weight
Studies using the rigorous standards outlined above have consistently shown that when people eat a calorie restricted diet — they lose weight.(3-6)
That is, when researchers measure people’s energy expenditure, weigh all of their food and count their calorie intake, and force them to eat less food than they need to maintain their weight — they lose weight. The amount of weight they lose is also generally proportional to the size of their caloric deficit.
Whether they eat mostly protein, fat, or carbs makes no significant difference in how much weight they lose.(3,5,7-9) Eating more protein does cause you to burn slightly more calories, around 70-100 per day, but it’s usually not enough to make a significant difference in weight loss.(10-13)
At this point, eating a calorie restricted diet and exercising (largely to burn more calories) are also considered the two most scientifically supported ways to lose weight.(14-17) It works.
When you restrict your calorie intake enough to create a deficit, you lose weight. It turns out the reverse is also true.
When People Eat More Calories than They Need — They Always Gain Weight
In studies where subjects are forced to overeat — they always gain weight.(18-28)
There is often a lot of individual variation in how much weight and fat people gain, but they always gain some. These differences are mostly because some people subconsciously move more when they overeat to burn off the extra calories (a phenomenon called non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or “NEAT,” which we’ll talk about later).(19,24,29-32)
However, this increase in subconscious energy expenditure is never enough to completely offset the increase in calories. In every study thus far — people still gain weight when they are eating more calories than they expend. They never expend enough to completely prevent weight gain when they overeat calories.
On the other hand, not all studies seem to show that eating fewer calories is necessary for weight loss, or that eating more calories causes weight gain.
Why Some Studies Seem to Show that Calories Don’t Count
As usual, people claim that you can find a study to prove anything. You can’t, but here’s why people think that’s true when it comes to calories and weight loss.
Studies often report that people eating low-carb diets lose as much or more weight as those eating high-carb diets, sometimes despite the subjects claiming to eat the same or more calories.(33-45)
There are also a similar number of these studies that have found greater or no difference in weight loss between high- and low-carb diets, but like most people who claim calories don’t count, we’re going to ignore those for now (and come back to them in a minute).(46-62)
Based on these studies people claim that:
1. You can lose weight without a caloric deficit.
2. You can lose more weight on the same calorie deficit by avoiding certain foods or macronutrients, like carbs. Thus macronutrients are what you should focus on — not calories.
Both of these claims are completely untrue.
None of these studies controlled for the variables we talked about at the beginning of this article. Most of these studies were conducted under “free-living conditions,” which means the subjects were given instructions on what to eat, sent home, and told to track their food intake.
They chose what — and how much — to eat and the researchers had to trust their diet records.
This is a big problem.
Diets Help People Eat Less Without Realizing It
When people go on a diet, they tend to spontaneously eat less for several reasons.
First, diets place restrictions on what and when you can eat.
- No carbs.
- No meat.
- No gluten.
- No grains, dairy, or legumes.
- No eating late at night.
- Eat every three hours.
- Don’t eat breakfast.
- Intermittently fast.
- No processed foods.
- No sweets.
- No sugar.
When you take away a signifiant portion of someone’s diet or place limits on when they can eat, they can’t help but eat less (at least for a while). If someone’s used to getting 50% of their calories from carbs — and they cut that to less than 10% — they’re going to eat less until they get used to their new diet.
Placing a limit on food variety also tends to make people eat less without realizing it. If you have fewer food options, you get bored faster and tend to eat less.(63) When people have more options, they eat more.(63,64)
Perhaps the biggest reason people eating low-carb diets sometimes lose more weight is that they also tend to eat more protein. Studies have repeatedly found that when people eat more protein, they feel fuller and spontaneously eat fewer calories without knowing it.(65-70)
When people switch to a high protein low-carb diet, they sometimes spontaneously reduce their food intake by 1,000 calories per day.(71) These people didn’t notice the difference, yet in just two weeks they lost 3.6 pounds (1.65 kilograms).
You’d think people would notice if they were eating significantly fewer calories. They don’t.
People Have No Clue How Much they Eat
People are horrible at estimating their calorie intake.(72-120)
Overweight and obese people (especially women) are often the worst, but most people underestimate their calorie intake to some degree.
It’s true for men and women and people of all ages.
It’s true when people are given specific instructions on how to measure their food intake.
It’s true for dietitians.(102)
It’s true even when people are paid to track their food intake.(104)
In some cases, people who claim they can’t lose weight by cutting calories underestimate their food intake by 47%, and overestimate their exercise levels by 51%.(75) Other data has shown that people can underreport their food intake by up to 2,000 calories per day.(89)
It’s likely that the people on high carb diets are more likely to underreport their food intake. This would make it seem as if people on low-carb diets are losing weight despite eating more calories.
The people on high carb diets in weight loss studies are often told to consciously restrict their calorie intake and avoid “unhealthy” or “bad” foods, especially fat. These are all behaviors that generally increase the likelihood that people will underreport their food intake.(81,92,97-101,121)
On the other hand, the people eating the low-carb diets are often told to eat as much fat and protein as they want.
Remember that most of these people were probably making some attempt to control fat intake before the study, or were at least used to the idea that fat is “bad” (thanks largely to the USDA, FDA, and other health agencies). When they’re told to eat a low-carb high-fat diet and to eat as much of these previously “forbidden” foods as they want, even small amounts can feel like a lot of food.
People on low-carb diets often eat more total protein and fat, which helps blunt their appetite.(65-70,122) In contrast, the people in the high-carb groups in these studies are often eating lots of refined carbs which tend to be far less filling. In fact, studies have shown that it’s actually the high protein content of the diet that helps control appetite and cause weight loss, not the avoidance of carbs.(123)
Enjoying previously taboo foods, eating more protein and fat, and not being told to restrict calories drives people in the low-carb groups to eat less and report they’re eating more than they really are.
This effect wears off, however. These people generally get used to their new diet and start eating more of the low-carb high-fat foods — and thus total calories. Over time they also tend to get bored with their diet and become less compliant.
This is why most free-living studies lasting longer than six months have found that people on high- or low-carb diets lose the same amount of weight.(33,43,45,62,124,125) It’s probably also why many free-living studies have found that people lose the same amount of weight eating high- or low-carb diets.
This is why you should be highly skeptical of people who claim they lost weight without eating fewer calories. Calories count. These people are just not counting them accurately, if at all.
If eating a low-carb diet helps you lose weight without counting calories — that’s great — as long as you can maintain it or find another option if it stops working. However, that doesn’t mean calories don’t count or that low-carb is the ONE TRUE DIET™ that will work for everyone.
The people who lost more weight in these free-living studies were eating fewer calories — they just didn’t know it.
Low-Carb Diets Make People Lose More Water Weight
There are several controlled studies that have found people eating low-carb diets lost more weight than those on high-carb diets.(126-129) Unfortunately, these studies have other problems.
While the people on low-carb diets lost more weight, they didn’t lose more fat — they lost water weight.(128,130)
When you eat carbs, they’re largely converted into muscle glycogen — the storage form of carbohydrate. Every gram of glycogen is bound to about 3-4 grams of water.(131,132)
When you switch to a low-carb diet, your glycogen levels drop, and you lose water weight.(133-136) Low-carb diets also tend to deplete electrolyte levels which can also have a diuretic (water depleting) effect.
Several of the studies that found low-carb diets helped people lose more weight only measured total body weight. They didn’t measure body composition, so there’s no way to know whether they lost fat, water, or muscle.
Other studies have measured or controlled for changes in water weight and have found no difference in fat loss.
Granted, it’s fun to see big changes in scale weight when you slash carbs, but those aren’t necessarily big changes in fat loss.
You Are Not a Rodent
Rodents also only lose weight when they’re in a caloric deficit, but there is at least one rodent study that found a ketogenic diet (generally less than 100 grams of carbs per day in humans) increased metabolic rate and weight loss more than a high-carb diet.(137)
However, there are several reasons these results are far less important than they appear at first sight.
First of all, there are other studies showing that rats overfed on a ketogenic diet still gain significant amounts of fat — more so than on high-carb diets.(138) In another mouse study where a ketogenic diet also increased energy expenditure and prevented weight gain, it still caused insulin resistance.(139)
Other studies have also found that rats placed on a low-carb diet don’t lose weight unless they also eat fewer calories.(140)
However, none of these animal studies show how a specific diet will help you lose weight. Rats are not humans, and studies on rats, mice, and other animals can never be completely generalized to people.
Rodents have several different physiological traits that may make it easier for them to gain fat on high-carb diets.(141-143) They convert carbohydrate to fat (a process called “de novo lipogenesis”) about 10 times more efficiently than humans do.(144,145) This is true for other animals like pigs as well.146 Rodents also process protein and fat differently.(147,148)
It’s fine to make educated guesses based on rodent studies of how something might work in humans. However, those results have to be validated by controlled human studies before you can call them anything more than “interesting.”
If we later find that the same diet that caused fat loss in rats didn’t work for humans, and this holds true for multiple studies, then it doesn’t work for humans — period. That’s exactly what we’ve found with low-carb diets and weight loss.
How to lose weight is one of the most thoroughly researched questions in the past 100 years, and at this point we have enough good human trials to stop worrying about rat studies. Not that they don’t have some value, but they don’t meet the same standard of evidence that human studies do.
Now you know why calories count.
Using rigorously controlled studies, we’ve found that:
1. When people are in a caloric deficit, they always lose weight.
2. When people are in a caloric surplus, they always gain weight.
3. You also learned that when people are allowed to decide how much they eat — under poorly controlled conditions — they sometimes lose more weight on low-carb diets without realizing it. Some people claim this is proof that calories don’t matter, when all it really proves is that people are bad at measuring their calorie intake. It also proves that high protein diets can help people lose weight by eating fewer calories.
4. Low-carb diets make people lose water weight, which often gives the impression that they’re losing more fat at the same calorie intake as people on high-carb diets.
5. It’s impossible to generalize weight loss studies on rats and mice to humans, as we have vastly different metabolisms. You are not a rodent, and what helps a rat lose weight may not do the same for you.
So you know calories count. But you’re not convinced all calories are created equal or that it’s really possible to manage them. Maybe low-carb diets aren’t magical, but on a practical level — isn’t there more to weight loss than calories in versus calories out?
1. Haugen HA, Chan L-N, Li F. Indirect calorimetry: a practical guide for clinicians. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(4):377–388.
2. McClave SA, Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract. 1992;7(5):207–221.
3. Buchholz AC, Schoeller DA. Is a calorie a calorie? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):899S–906S. Available at: http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&id=15113737&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks.
4. Schoeller DA. The energy balance equation: looking back and looking forward are two very different views. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(5):249–254. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00197.x.
5. Schoeller DA, Buchholz AC. Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(5 Suppl 1):S24–8. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.025.
6. Westerterp KR. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(3):148–154. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00270.x.
7. Freedman MR, King J, Kennedy E. Popular diets: a scientific review. Obes Res. 2001;9 Suppl 1:1S–40S. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.113.
8. Hu T, Mills KT, Yao L, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176 Suppl 7:S44–54. doi:10.1093/aje/kws264.
9. Bradley U, Spence M, Courtney CH, et al. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial. Diabetes. 2009;58(12):2741–2748. doi:10.2337/db09-0098.
10. Johnston CS, Day CS, Swan PD. Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(1):55–61.
11. Veldhorst MAB, Westerterp KR, van Vught AJAH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(9):1395–1405. doi:10.1017/S0007114510002060.
12. Veldhorst MAB, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR. Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):519–526. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27834.
13. Arciero PJ, Ormsbee MJ, Gentile CL, Nindl BC, Brestoff JR, Ruby M. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013. doi:10.1002/oby.20296.
14. Nammi S, Koka S, Chinnala KM, Boini KM. Obesity: an overview on its current perspectives and treatment options. Nutr J. 2004;3:3. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC421736/.
15. Orzano AJ, Scott JG. Diagnosis and treatment of obesity in adults: an applied evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004;17(5):359–369. Available at: http://www.jabfm.org/content/17/5/359.full.
16. Brown T, Avenell A, Edmunds LD, et al. Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults. Obes Rev. 2009;10(6):627–638. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00641.x.
17. Hill JO. Understanding and addressing the epidemic of obesity: an energy balance perspective. Endocr Rev. 2006;27(7):750–761. doi:10.1210/er.2006-0032.
18. Tappy L. Metabolic consequences of overfeeding in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004;7(6):623–628.
19. Joosen AMCP, Westerterp KR. Energy expenditure during overfeeding. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006;3:25. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-25.
20. Samocha-Bonet D, Campbell LV, Mori TA, et al. Overfeeding Reduces Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Oxidative Stress, without Altering Markers of Mitochondrial Content and Function in Humans. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036320.
21. Joosen AMCP, Bakker AHF, Westerterp KR. Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding. Physiol Behav. 2005;85(5):593–597. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.06.006.
22. Diaz EO, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA. Metabolic response to experimental overfeeding in lean and overweight healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56(4):641–655. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/56/4/641.long.
23. He J, Votruba S, Pomeroy J, Bonfiglio S, Krakoff J. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36225 EP –. doi:doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036225.
24. Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD. Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistance to fat gain in humans. Science. 1999;283(5399):212–214. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/283/5399/212.long.
25. McDevitt RM, Bott SJ, Harding M, Coward WA, Bluck LJ, Prentice AM. De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(6):737–746. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/74/6/737.long.
26. McDevitt RM, Poppitt SD, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM. Macronutrient disposal during controlled overfeeding with glucose, fructose, sucrose, or fat in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2):369–377. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/72/2/369.long.
27. Horton TJ, Drougas H, Brachey A, Reed GW, Peters JC, Hill JO. Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(1):19–29. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/62/1/19.long.
28. Bray GA, Smith SR, de Jonge L, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(1):47–55. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1918.
29. Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD. Leptin responses to overfeeding: relationship with body fat and nonexercise activity thermogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(8):2751–2754. Available at: http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/84/8/2751.long.
30. Levine JA, Lanningham-Foster LM, McCrady SK, et al. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. Science. 2005;307(5709):584–586. doi:10.1126/science.1106561.
31. Klein S, Goran M. Energy metabolism in response to overfeeding in young adult men. Metab Clin Exp. 1993;42(9):1201–1205.
32. Saris WH. Physical inactivity and metabolic factors as predictors of weight gain. Nutr Rev. 1996;54(4 Pt 2):S110–5.
33. Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(3):285–293. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285.
34. Feinman RD, Fine EJ. Thermodynamics and metabolic advantage of weight loss diets. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2003;1(3):209–219. doi:10.1089/154041903322716688.
35. Manninen AH. Is a calorie really a calorie? Metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2004;1(2):21–26. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-21.
36. Racette SB, Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, Neil KM, Herling-Iaffaldano K. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(3):486–494.
37. Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, et al. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003;133(2):411–417.
38. Layman DK. The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr. 2003;133(1):261S–267S. Available at: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/133/1/261S.long.
39. Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003;142(3):253–258. doi:10.1067/mpd.2003.4.
40. Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Love DM, et al. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metab Clin Exp. 2002;51(7):864–870.
41. Yancy WSJ, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(10):769–777.
42. Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1617–1623. Available at: http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/88/4/1617.long.
43. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2082–2090. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022207.
44. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2074–2081. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022637.
45. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297(9):969–977. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.969.
46. Alford BB, Blankenship AC, Hagen RD. The effects of variations in carbohydrate, protein, and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult obese women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90(4):534–540.
47. Golay A, Eigenheer C, Morel Y, Kujawski P, Lehmann T, de Tonnac N. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet? International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1996;20(12):1067–1072.
48. Golay A, Allaz AF, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, Reaven G. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(2):174–178.
49. Lean ME, Han TS, Prvan T, Richmond PR, Avenell A. Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51(4):243–248.
50. Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):586–591.
51. Sargrad KR, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Boden G. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(4):573–580. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.01.009.
52. Segal-Isaacson CJ, Johnson S, Tomuta V, Cowell B, Stein DT. A randomized trial comparing low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets matched for energy and protein. Obes Res. 2004;12 Suppl 2:130S–40S. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.278.
53. Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, James AP, Mamo JC, Clifton PM. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006;3:7. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-7.
54. Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, White A, Hutchins H, Sears B. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1055–1061. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/83/5/1055.long.
55. Krauss RM, Blanche PJ, Rawlings RS, Fernstrom HS, Williams PT. Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1025–31– quiz 1205. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/83/5/1025.long.
56. Truby H, Baic S, deLooy A, et al. Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC “diet trials”. BMJ. 2006;332(7553):1309–1314. doi:10.1136/bmj.38833.411204.80.
57. Rumpler WV, Seale JL, Miles CW, Bodwell CE. Energy-intake restriction and diet-composition effects on energy expenditure in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(2):430–436.
58. Meckling KA, O’Sullivan C, Saari D. Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(6):2717–2723.
59. Petersen M, Taylor MA, Saris WHM, et al. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects:. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 2006;30(3):552–560. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803186.
60. Kleiner RE, Hutchins AM, Johnston CS, Swan PD. Effects of an 8-week high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet in adults with hyperinsulinemia. MedGenMed. 2006;8(4):39. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1868379/.
61. Lecheminant JD, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, et al. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program. Nutr J. 2007;6:36. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-36.
62. Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):23–32. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326.
63. Raynor HA, Epstein LH. Dietary variety, energy regulation, and obesity. Psychol Bull. 2001;127(3):325–341.
64. Larson DE, Rising R, Ferraro RT, Ravussin E. Spontaneous overfeeding with a “cafeteria diet” in men: effects on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1995;19(5):331–337.
65. Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(5):373–385. Available at: http://www.jacn.org/content/23/5/373.long.
66. Erlanson-Albertsson C, Mei J. The effect of low carbohydrate on energy metabolism. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 2005;29 Suppl 2:S26–30.
67. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Protein intake and energy balance. Regul Pept. 2008;149(1-3):67–69. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2007.08.026.
68. Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, Mattes RD, Wolfe RR, Astrup A, Westerterp-Plantenga M. Protein, weight management, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1558S–1561S. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/5/1558S.long.
69. Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008;11(6):747–751.
70. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Nieuwenhuizen A, Tome D, Soenen S, Westerterp KR. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:21–41. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-080508-141056.
71. Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(6):403–411.
72. Yanetz R, Kipnis V, Carroll RJ, et al. Using biomarker data to adjust estimates of the distribution of usual intakes for misreporting: application to energy intake in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(3):455–64– discussion 464. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.12.004.
73. Millen AE, Tooze JA, Subar AF, Kahle LL, Schatzkin A, Krebs-Smith SM. Differences between food group reports of low-energy reporters and non-low-energy reporters on a food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(7):1194–1203. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.04.004.
74. Tooze JA, Vitolins MZ, Smith SL, et al. High levels of low energy reporting on 24-hour recalls and three questionnaires in an elderly low-socioeconomic status population. J Nutr. 2007;137(5):1286–1293. Available at: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/5/1286.long.
75. Lichtman SW, Pisarska K, Berman ER, et al. Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(27):1893–1898. doi:10.1056/NEJM199212313272701.
76. Price GM, Paul AA, Cole TJ, Wadsworth ME. Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey. Br J Nutr. 1997;77(6):833–851.
77. Pryer JA, Vrijheid M, Nichols R, Kiggins M, Elliott P. Who are the “low energy reporters” in the dietary and nutritional survey of British adults? Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26(1):146–154.
78. Brehm BJ, Spang SE, Lattin BL, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. The role of energy expenditure in the differential weight loss in obese women on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(3):1475–1482. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1540.
79. Burrows TL, Martin RJ, Collins CE. A systematic review of the validity of dietary assessment methods in children when compared with the method of doubly labeled water. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(10):1501–1510. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.07.008.
80. Cook A, Pryer J, Shetty P. The problem of accuracy in dietary surveys. Analysis of the over 65 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000;54(8):611–616.
81. Maurer J, Taren DL, Teixeira PJ, et al. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(2 Pt 1):53–66.
82. Rennie MJ, Bohe J, Smith K, Wackerhage H, Greenhaff P. Branched-chain amino acids as fuels and anabolic signals in human muscle. J Nutr. 2006;136(1 Suppl):264S–8S. Available at: http://pmid.us/16365095.
83. Johansson L, Solvoll K, Bjorneboe GE, Drevon CA. Under- and overreporting of energy intake related to weight status and lifestyle in a nationwide sample. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2):266–274.
84. Poslusna K, Ruprich J, de Vries JHM, Jakubikova M, van’t Veer P. Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. Br J Nutr. 2009;101 Suppl 2:S73–85. doi:10.1017/S0007114509990602.
85. Livingstone MBE, Black AE. Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr. 2003;133 Suppl 3:895S–920S.
86. Pietilaninen KH, Korkeila M, Bogl LH, et al. Inaccuracies in food and physical activity diaries of obese subjects: complementary evidence from doubly labeled water and co-twin assessments. International Journal of Obesity (2010). 2010;34:37–445.
87. Ferrari P, Slimani N, Ciampi A, et al. Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(6B):1329–1345. doi:10.1079/PHN2002409.
88. Azizi F, Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P. Correlates of under- and over-reporting of energy intake in Tehranians: body mass index and lifestyle-related factors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1):54–59.
89. Buhl KM, Gallagher D, Hoy K, Matthews DE, Heymsfield SB. Unexplained disturbance in body weight regulation: diagnostic outcome assessed by doubly labeled water and body composition analyses in obese patients reporting low energy intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95(12):1393–400– quiz 1401–2. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00367-3.
90. Samaras K, Kelly PJ, Campbell LV. Dietary underreporting is prevalent in middle-aged British women and is not related to adiposity (percentage body fat). International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1999;23(8):881–888.
91. Lafay L, Mennen L, Basdevant A, et al. Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) study. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 2000;24(11):1500–1506.
92. Lafay L, Basdevant A, Charles MA, et al. Determinants and nature of dietary underreporting in a free-living population: the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) Study. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1997;21(7):567–573.
93. Garriguet D. Under-reporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey. Health Rep. 2008;19(4):37–45.
94. Shahar DR, Yu B, Houston DK, et al. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29(1):14–24.
95. Krebs-Smith SM, Graubard BI, Kahle LL, Subar AF, Cleveland LE, Ballard-Barbash R. Low energy reporters vs others: a comparison of reported food intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(4):281–287.
96. Bratteby LE, Sandhagen B, Fan H, Enghardt H, Samuelson G. Total energy expenditure and physical activity as assessed by the doubly labeled water method in Swedish adolescents in whom energy intake was underestimated by 7-d diet records. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(5):905–911.
97. Tooze JA, Subar AF, Thompson FE, Troiano R, Schatzkin A, Kipnis V. Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):795–804.
98. Rennie KL, Siervo M, Jebb SA. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys? J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(10):1667–1672. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.014.
99. Macdiarmid J, Blundell J. Assessing dietary intake: Who, what and why of under-reporting. Nutr Res Rev. 1998;11(2):231–253. doi:10.1079/NRR19980017.
100. Bathalon GP, Tucker KL, Hays NP, et al. Psychological measures of eating behavior and the accuracy of 3 common dietary assessment methods in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(3):739–745.
101. Ventura AK, Loken E, Mitchell DC, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch LL. Understanding reporting bias in the dietary recall data of 11-year-old girls. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14(6):1073–1084. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.123.
102. Champagne CM, Bray GA, Kurtz AA, et al. Energy intake and energy expenditure: a controlled study comparing dietitians and non-dietitians. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(10):1428–1432.
103. Bedard D, Shatenstein B, Nadon S. Underreporting of energy intake from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire completed by adults in Montreal. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(5):675–681.
104. Hendrickson S, Mattes R. Financial incentive for diet recall accuracy does not affect reported energy intake or number of underreporters in a sample of overweight females. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(1):118–121. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.10.003.
105. Muhlheim LS, Allison DB, Heshka S, Heymsfield SB. Do unsuccessful dieters intentionally underreport food intake? Int J Eat Disord. 1998;24(3):259–266. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199811)24:3<259::AID-EAT3>3.0.CO;2-L.
106. Black AE, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA, Livingstone MB, Cole TJ, Prentice AM. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1991;45(12):583–599.
107. Singh R, Martin BR, Hickey Y, et al. Comparison of self-reported, measured, metabolizable energy intake with total energy expenditure in overweight teens. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1744–1750. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26752.
108. Bingham SA, Day NE. Using biochemical markers to assess the validity of prospective dietary assessment methods and the effect of energy adjustment. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(4 Suppl):1130S–1137S.
109. Black AE, Bingham SA, Johansson G, Coward WA. Validation of dietary intakes of protein and energy against 24 hour urinary N and DLW energy expenditure in middle-aged women, retired men and post-obese subjects: comparisons with validation against presumed energy requirements. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51(6):405–413.
110. Novotny JA, Rumpler WV, Riddick H, et al. Personality characteristics as predictors of underreporting of energy intake on 24-hour dietary recall interviews. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(9):1146–1151.
111. Heerstrass DW, Ocke MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Seidell JC. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index. Int J Epidemiol. 1998;27(2):186–193.
112. Zhang J, Temme EH, Sasaki S, Kesteloot H. Under- and overreporting of energy intake using urinary cations as biomarkers: relation to body mass index. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(5):453–462.
113. Scagliusi FB, Ferriolli E, Pfrimer K, et al. Underreporting of energy intake in Brazilian women varies according to dietary assessment: a cross-sectional study using doubly labeled water. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2031–2040. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.09.012.
114. Heitmann BL. The influence of fatness, weight change, slimming history and other lifestyle variables on diet reporting in Danish men and women aged 35-65 years. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1993;17(6):329–336.
115. Scagliusi FB, Polacow VO, Artioli GG, Benatti FB, Lancha AHJ. Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: magnitude, determinants, and effect of training. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(10):1306–1313.
116. Heitmann BL, Lissner L. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals–is it specific or non-specific? BMJ. 1995;311(7011):986–989. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7011.986.
117. Hebert JR, Peterson KE, Hurley TG, et al. The effect of social desirability trait on self-reported dietary measures among multi-ethnic female health center employees. Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11(6):417–427.
118. Johnson RK, Soultanakis RP, Matthews DE. Literacy and body fatness are associated with underreporting of energy intake in US low-income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall: a doubly labeled water study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98(10):1136–1140. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00263-6.
119. Taren DL, Tobar M, Hill A, et al. The association of energy intake bias with psychological scores of women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53(7):570–578.
120. Horner NK, Patterson RE, Neuhouser ML, Lampe JW, Beresford SA, Prentice RL. Participant characteristics associated with errors in self-reported energy intake from the Women’s Health Initiative food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(4):766–773.
121. Voss S, Kroke A, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Boeing H. Is macronutrient composition of dietary intake data affected by underreporting? Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(2):119–126.
122. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The significance of protein in food intake and body weight regulation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003;6(6):635–638. doi:10.1097/01.mco.0000098087.40916.c4.
123. Soenen S, Bonomi AG, Lemmens SGT, et al. Relatively high-protein or “low-carb” energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance? Physiol Behav. 2012;107(3):374–380. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.08.004.
124. Hession M, Rolland C, Kulkarni U, Wise A, Broom J. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev. 2009;10(1):36–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00518.x.
125. Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(10):778–785.
126. Rabast U, Schonborn J, Kasper H. Dietetic treatment of obesity with low and high-carbohydrate diets: comparative studies and clinical results. International Journal of Obesity (2005). 1979;3(3):201–211.
127. Rabast U, Vornberger KH, Ehl M. Loss of weight, sodium and water in obese persons consuming a high- or low-carbohydrate diet. Ann Nutr Metab. 1981;25(6):341–349. Available at: http://www.colorado.edu/intphys/Class/IPHY3700_Greene/pdfs/discussionEssay/weightLossStudies/rabast.pdf.
128. Stimson RH, Johnstone AM, Homer NZM, et al. Dietary macronutrient content alters cortisol metabolism independently of body weight changes in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(11):4480–4484. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0692.
129. KEKWICK A, PAWAN GL. Calorie intake in relation to body-weight changes in the obese. Lancet. 1956;271(6935):155–161.
130. Krehl WA, Lopez A, Good EI, Hodges RE. Some metabolic changes induced by low carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1967;20(2):139–148. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/20/2/139.full.pdf+html.
131. Chan ST, Johnson AW, Moore MH, Kapadia CR, Dudley HA. Early weight gain and glycogen-obligated water during nutritional rehabilitation. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1982;36(3):223–232.
132. Olsson KE, Saltin B. Variation in total body water with muscle glycogen changes in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1970;80(1):11–18.
133. Kreitzman SN, Coxon AY, Szaz KF. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56(1 Suppl):292S–293S. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/56/1/292S.full.pdf.
134. Burke LM. Fueling strategies to optimize performance: training high or training low? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20 Suppl 2:48–58. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01185.x.
135. Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SHS, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S17–27. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.585473.
136. Evans WJ, Hughes VA. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;41(5 Suppl):1146–1154. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/41/5/1146.long.
137. Kennedy AR, Pissios P, Otu H, et al. A high-fat, ketogenic diet induces a unique metabolic state in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292(6):E1724–39. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00717.2006.
138. Ribeiro LC, Chitto AL, Muller AP, et al. Ketogenic diet-fed rats have increased fat mass and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(11):1365–1371. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700415.
139. Jornayvaz FR, Jurczak MJ, Lee H-Y, et al. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299(5):E808–15. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00361.2010.
140. Williams EA, Perkins SN, Smith NCP, Hursting SD, Lane MA. Carbohydrate versus energy restriction: effects on weight loss, body composition and metabolism. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007;51(3):232–243. doi:10.1159/000104143.
141. Brocklehurst KJ, Davies RA, Agius L. Differences in regulatory properties between human and rat glucokinase regulatory protein. Biochem J. 2004;378(Pt 2):693–697. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/14627435/.
142. Letexier D, Pinteur C, Large V, Frering V, Beylot M. Comparison of the expression and activity of the lipogenic pathway in human and rat adipose tissue. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(11):2127–2134. Available at: http://www.jlr.org/content/44/11/2127.full.pdf.
143. Kotokorpi P, Ellis E, Parini P, et al. Physiological differences between human and rat primary hepatocytes in response to liver X receptor activation by 3-[3-[N-(2-chloro-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-(2,2-diphenylethyl)amino]propyloxy]phe nylacetic acid hydrochloride (GW3965). Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72(4):947–955. doi:10.1124/mol.107.037358.
144. Hirsch J, Goldrick RB. Serial Studies on the Metabolism of Human Adipose Tissue. I. Lipogenesis and Free Fatty Acid Uptake and Release in Small Aspirated Samples of Subcutaneous Fat *. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1964;43(9):1776–1792. doi:10.1172/JCI105052.
145. Di Girolamo M, Rudman D. Species differences in glucose metabolism and insulin responsiveness of adipose tissue. Am J Physiol. 1966;210(4):721–727.
146. Murphy EJ. Stable isotope methods for the in vivo measurement of lipogenesis and triglyceride metabolism. J Anim Sci. 2006;84 Suppl:E94–104.
147. Bergen WG, Mersmann HJ. Comparative aspects of lipid metabolism: impact on contemporary research and use of animal models. J Nutr. 2005;135(11):2499–2502. Available at: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/135/11/2499.long.
148. Suryawan A, Hawes JW, Harris RA, Shimomura Y, Jenkins AE, Hutson SM. A molecular model of human branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(1):72–81. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/68/1/72.long.
Leave a Comment
You must be logged in to post a comment.